Leaving Breadcrumbs

Leaving Breadcrumbs

Regardless of how you travel — whether it's by foot, bike, car, or train — you leave a trail of data. Read this article to learn how data is being collected from you while you're on the move.
​Sarah Villeneuve
Policy Analyst
Stephanie Fielding
Policy & Research Analyst
November 20, 2019
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Whether walking, riding the bus, driving, or taking another form of transportation, as individuals move throughout their day, they are often connected to technology and data collection practices. Advances in GPS tracking in mobile phones have allowed users to map out and track their routes and travel time with increasing accuracy, while built-in pedometers are used to count steps taken towards an individual’s daily health goals. Electronic fare systems in regional public transit networks provide a more personalized and convenient service to their users, and ridesharing platforms, such as Uber, Lyft, et al., have made the process of hailing and paying for a ride entirely digital through the user’s smartphone. Even personal vehicles employ data to track usage and maintenance needs, and GPS-navigation systems are now standard in most new vehicles.

Yet, while these platforms and digital practices bring benefits such as reduced travel time and increased convenience for many travellers, the data generated by their use and implementation may also be used to track and uncover very personal details about an individual’s day-to-day behaviour – including information about where an individual lives or works, how long they spend at places like the doctor’s office, their travel habits, and who they interact with.[1] A 2018 investigative report,[2] published by The New York Times, found that over four months, anonymous, precise location data was shared with at least 75 companies[3] from mobile phone apps “whose users enable location services to get local news and weather or other information.”[4] 

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Tap-and-Go Public Transit Cards

A number of cities across Canada have adopted automated electronic fare networks for regional public transit systems. Some examples of these systems include Presto in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and Ottawa regions, Compass in Vancouver, OPUS in Montreal, and Go-Pass in Saskatoon. To use these services, users register their cards using an online system which allows them to conveniently replace lost or stolen cards and restore cash balances. In order to register for an online account, users are often required to submit their name, address, telephone number or email address, and birth date. Several of these services allow registered users to activate an autoload or yearly feature, which automatically charges their credit card each month, eliminating the need for frequent reloading of funds. In order to activate autoload, one must also provide financial information, such as a credit card number or bank account information.

In 2017, Canadian public transit systems had 2.11 billion passenger trips.[5] On average, Ontario’s GTA has a ridership of 1.6 million passengers per business day,[6] and Metrolinx, the company responsible for their automated fare system Presto, has 276,500 passengers[7] per weekday. With the use of the Presto system, Metrolinx has the ability to track and record personal travel patterns and tie that information back to individuals who have registered their cards. Each province and territory in Canada has its own privacy laws with respect to personally-identifiable information. In Ontario, the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act (FIPPA) prohibits Metrolinx from selling or trading personal data with third parties without the individual’s consent. However, they can disclose personally-identifiable information – such as an individual’s email address, phone number, and financial details – at the company’s discretion. For example, Metrolinx has shared user information with law enforcement several times without requiring a warrant or court order.[8] Data drawn from these electronic fare systems is being used to inform transit planning and development in several municipalities across Canada; however, those without access to digital tech and banking may be under-represented in data being used to make decisions.

Gaming on your Commute

Many travellers are turning to gaming as a way of passing time during daily commutes. Passengers can be seen scrolling ebooks, social media, and news, and playing mobile games such as Candy Crush, Angry Birds, and FarmVille, on their smartphones and tablets. According to the 2018 Entertainment Software Association of Canada (ESAC) report, twenty-three million Canadians are gamers, with 46% playing most often on their mobile devices.[9] Most cheap and free-to-play games generate a significant amount of data on their users, including personally-identifiable information, purchasing history, and gameplay habits, which can reveal behavioural profiles of players.[10] Advertising software is often linked directly to the games, and data gathered on players may be used for digital marketing, targeting users who have been identified as those who will spend more money on in-app purchases – a common add-on feature in gaming which allows players to ‘level up’ or ‘obtain features’ to advance their ability to win.[11] Some game companies have been linked to government agencies; Angry Birds, in particular, was implicated in the Snowden leaks in 2014 for having ties to the US National Security Administration (NSA), suggesting the gaming app was used as a means to obtain personally-identifying information on US residents.[12] 

"A data breach in 2016 exposed the personally-identifiable information of 815,000 Canadians, including names, email addresses, and mobile phone numbers, according to a statement made by Uber."

Ridesharing and Mobile App Data

Ridesharing platforms refers to transport network services, shared personal vehicles, or carpooling services, which can be free or paid. Using GPS navigation devices and social networks, these services provide end-to-end transportation and payment services through a user’s smartphone. Rideshares provide their customers with convenient and often less expensive fares than traditional taxis;[13] however, as this study [14] shows, savings are often dependent on which city you live in and whether or not the Rideshare is operating with ‘surge pricing.’[15] Ridesharing services are available in most Canadian cities and some smaller municipalities, outside of B.C., which has restricted their use because of commercial licencing requirements.[16] Similar battles have been fought in Alberta[17] and Quebec;[18] however, both provinces have conceded and have allowed Rideshares to operate as of 2018. Uber[19] is the most popular Ridesharing service in North America, with some small towns partially subsidizing Uber buses as an alternative public transit system, such as Innisfil, Ontario .[20] Declining transit ridership across large North American cities has raised concerns that Rideshares may be affecting overall usage of public transit; however, as this study[21] from the University of Toronto shows, the two may be complementary.

Ridesharing platforms have come under scrutiny around issues of user privacy. Most commonly, these concerns center on the privacy of an individual’s personally-identifiable information and location, as well as the collection, use, and sharing of financial details, which users are required to submit to pay for Ridesharing services.  A data breach in 2016 exposed the personally-identifiable information of 815,000 Canadians, including names, email addresses, and mobile phone numbers, according to a statement made by Uber.[22] Uber’s “God View” function shows the location of Uber vehicles and customers requesting rides,[23] allowing Uber employees with specific access to track users. In 2014, it was reported[24] that Uber used this function to track journalists who were critical of the company. Personal details can also be drawn from app usage, including information about user pick-up destination location, drop-off destination location, home or work addresses (if set by users), and time and date of travel. Recent research from Gizmodo[25] shows the vast amount of data that is collected passively by third parties when an individual uses Uber.[26] The series tracked and analyzed how Apple, Google, Facebook, Amazon, and Microsoft collected data from the author’s iPhone upon entering the vehicle. Some RideSharing drivers choose to use passenger-facing cameras for their own security, leading to concerns over customer privacy. As the drivers are generally independent contractors, there is a lot less oversight around the data that they collect or the devices they have installed, calling into question whether regulation should be focusing on platforms or individual drivers.

"Recently, auto insurance companies in Canada have been adopting usage-based applications which monitor how drivers operate in a car, location data, and maintenance schedules."

Personal Vehicles

Since the 1990s, private companies and public agencies, most notably law enforcement, have been using automatic licence plate recognition (ALPR) technology to monitor and track vehicles throughout Canada. These systems help parking lot attendants to manage their lots, regulate the use of pay-to-use toll roads, and assist in the detection of traffic violations. Scanned plates are compared to police databases, which may be “derived from provincial insurance companies, affiliated provincial agencies such as the Ministry of Transportation, or the Canadian Police Information Centre,”[27] to identify persons of interest. As the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada has pointed out, ALPR systems have significant “privacy implications because they record where specific vehicles are at given times, often without the driver realizing that such information is being captured.”[28] The recent advancement of these systems in the past decade has enabled the scale of this type of data practice to increase dramatically, allowing thousands of vehicle plates to be scanned, stored, and analyzed per day.[29] 

Global navigation satellite systems, such as the US Global Positioning System (GPS), are other technologies that have been used for many years within personal vehicles. These devices generate data which can be used to provide positioning, navigation, and timing information to drivers, allowing for emergency services to respond more quickly and to plan routes more efficiently and safely, and allow for the tracking and monitoring of a single vehicle or fleet, location, and relative speed.[30] While GPS has been available for civilian use as dashboard trackers since the 1980s,[31] newer vehicles, including cars, buses, and long-haul trucks, now have GPS tracking built into their operating systems.[32] These internal GPS tracking systems have been used in some cases by rental car companies in the US to locate vehicles which haven’t been returned on time.[33] 

Recently, auto insurance companies in Canada have been adopting usage-based applications which monitor how drivers operate in a car, location data, and maintenance schedules. CAA’s MyPace[34] is an example of a usage-based insurance (UBI) premium program in Canada, and Root Insurance[35] and Progressing Insurance[36] provide similar services in the US. “The [MyPace] program uses a device plugged into the vehicle that connects to a mobile app or web portal used to track data on kilometres driven, time and distance of the trip. The program is distinct from insurance offerings that monitor variables such as the speed of the car and braking patterns that can be used to gauge personal driving habits as a factor in premium rate calculations.”[37] In such programs, ‘good’ driving behaviours can lead to lower rates and policy premiums.[38]  The first UBI program in Canada, also called pay-as-you-go, debuted in Ontario in May 2018 from the Canadian Automobile Association, for drivers who travelled less than 9,000 kilometers per year; both types of usage-based insurance are now being offered in Alberta, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec.[39] 

"While pedometers have been on the commercial market since the early 20th century, modern pedometers use an accelerometer, a sensor which can measure movement in three directions, allowing for a more accurate recording of steps taken."

Walking

While pedometers have been on the commercial market since the early 20th century, modern pedometers use an accelerometer, a sensor which can measure movement in three directions, allowing for a more accurate recording of steps taken. Today, pedometers are built-in to the hardware of most smartphones; paired with pre-installed apps, such as Apple Health and Stepz, they detect and record user steps wherever they go with their device. Pedometer data may be transferred to healthcare professionals to assess ambulatory wellness and overall fitness levels.

Many smartphone apps track individual user locations through location services accessible through operator settings; however, some, such as Facebook, use additional data sources to infer a user’s location even if a user has opted out of location services, including in-transit detection, passive wifi, user check-ins, Bluetooth beacons, user profile information, and IP address. Location-based alerts, which send users a ‘welcome home’ message upon entering their place of residence,[40] and GoogleMaps’ tracking of user trips without explicit consent,[41] are reminders of how we are rarely alone in today’s connected world.

Bluetooth beacons use one-way data transmissions to communicate with smartphones within range. These beacons, which don’t require users to pair or consent to content, are mainly used for marketing by commercial retailers – to track the movement of individuals exploring retail locations on foot, and send corresponding targeted advertising content. They are considered to be more accurate than GPS-location data.[42] Bluetooth beacons have also been deployed to improve autonomy and mobility for blind populations in Canada, transmitting directions to a user’s smartphone as they navigate through various locations around the city.[43]

"While current legislation prohibits electronic vehicles in public spaces, e-scooters are being piloted in several Canadian cities, including Calgary, Waterloo, Kelowna, and Toronto."

Small Vehicles, Bike and Scooter Shares

Several municipalities across Canada perform bike counts in order to assess bike usage and respond to infrastructure needs. Bicyclists are counted a number of ways, including manual counts by field workers, and, more recently in Toronto, through 24-hour video count technology, which uses image processing to automate data collection.[44] Data collected on bicyclists can include personally-identifying information, such as noting whether a bicycle is absent from a usual location (indicating possible use), cyclist gender, helmet use, and riding characteristics (such as whether the cyclist chooses to ride on the sidewalk or bike lane/road). The Bike Share Toronto Ridership, housed in the municipal open data portal, contains anonymized trip data, including user types.[45] 

Many cyclists use mobile apps to track their routes and gain access to rewards. Biko,[46] for example, gives cyclists points for each kilometre they cycle, which they can redeem for services and discounts at various retail locations. BikeShares in many Canadian cities allow users to pay-per-use through their accounts, which are linked to a personal credit card. With docked bicycles, such as BikeShareMobi, and U-Bicycle, data is collected on where users pick up and leave their vehicles, but not while they’re travelling between locations. This is not the case for dockless services, such as US-based e-scooter companies Bird and Lime. With embedded GPS in each scooter linked to user accounts, these companies are able to collect trip-level location data on their riders in real time,[47] causing some city officials to express concern over the ease at which users might be identified in the case of a data breach.[48] While current legislation prohibits electronic vehicles in public spaces, e-scooters are being piloted in several Canadian cities, including Calgary,[49] Waterloo, Kelowna, and Toronto.[50] 

The granularity of data collected by these companies about routes and use-patterns can be very valuable from a city planning perspective. The fitness app Strava,[51] for example, is used by many to track bike routes (as well as walking, running, and other personal fitness activities). The company aggregates its user data into ‘Global Heatmaps’, which reveal patterns of use for trips made. The first release of Strava’s Global Heatmap[52] yielded so many calls from planners and activists that the company parlated their research into a data toolkit, Strava Metro,[53] which is now used by 125 organizations around the world, including departments of transportation.[54] An important aspect of the data generated on Strava is that it is often from individuals from a higher socioeconomic status, with access to smartphones and sufficient data plans, meaning that many users are under-represented in the heatmap which is being used for decision making. As some city planners have pointed out, “in many cases, the places with the fewest data points might be those most in need of better cycling and pedestrian infrastructure.”[55]

This is part of a series of articles exploring personal data collection practices in Canada. Check out our previous article ‘Blood, Sweat, and Megabytes’, or skip ahead to our next article on Education + Employment.

Technology and policy related to this topic are constantly evolving. If you think we have missed something or see an error please contact Sarah Villeneuve (sarah.villeneuve@ryerson.ca). If you want to get involved in subsequent phases of this project, apply here.


[1] Tactical Technology Collective. 2017. “Location Tracking.” Me and My Shadow. February 15, 2017. https://myshadow.org/.

[2] Valentino-DeVries, Jennifer, Natasha Singer, Michael Keller, and Aaron Krolik. 2018. “Your Apps Know Where You Were Last Night, and They’re Not Keeping It Secret.” The New York Times, December 10, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/12/10/business/location-data-privacy-apps.html.

[3] Including hedge funds and advertisers.

[4] Valentino-DeVries, Jennifer, Natasha Singer, Michael Keller, and Aaron Krolik. 2018. “Your Apps Know Where You Were Last Night, and They’re Not Keeping It Secret.” The New York Times, December 10, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2018/12/10/business/location-data-privacy-apps.html.

[5] Canadian Urban Transit Association (CUTA). 2018. “Transit Ridership Is Growing in Canada.” GlobeNewswire NewsRoom. November 14, 2018. http://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2018/11/14/1651316/0/en/Transit-ridership-is-growing-in-Canada.html.

[6] Toronto Transit Commission. 2019. “TTC Section One.” Toronto Transit Commision. 2019. http://www.ttc.ca/About_the_TTC/Operating_Statistics/2017/section_one.jsp.

[7] Metrolinx. 2018. “Go Transit: Fact Sheet.” Metrolinx. https://www.gotransit.com/static_files/gotransit/assets/pdf/AboutUs/WhatIsGO/GO_InfoToGo_06-21-ENG.pdf.

[8] Spurr, Ben. 2019. “Metrolinx Continues to Share Presto Users’ Data without Requiring Warrants.” The Toronto Star, February 4, 2019. https://www.thestar.com/news/gta/2019/02/01/metrolinx-continues-to-share-presto-users-data-without-requiring-warrants.html.

[9] Entertainment Software Association of Canada (ESAC). “Essential Facts Annual Publications.” Entertainment Software Association of Canada, 2019. http://theesa.ca/resources/essential-facts/.

[10] Birch, Kean. “Five Reasons Canada’s Digital Charter Will Be a Bust before It Even Gets Going.” The Globe and Mail, May 23, 2019. https://www.theglobeandmail.com/business/commentary/article-five-reasons-canadas-digital-charter-will-be-a-bust-before-it-even/.\

[11] Tiffany, Kaitlyn. 2019. “Angry Birds and the End of Privacy.” Vox. May 7, 2019. https://www.vox.com/explainers/2019/5/7/18273355/angry-birds-phone-games-data-collection-candy-crush.

[12] Ball, James. 2014. “Angry Birds and ‘leaky’ Phone Apps Targeted by NSA and GCHQ for User Data.” The Guardian, January 28, 2014. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jan/27/nsa-gchq-smartphone-app-angry-birds-personal-data.

[13] Kolanko, Daniel, and Zack Gallinger. 2015. “How Much Do You Save by Using Uber?” The 10 and 3, November 11, 2015. http://www.the10and3.com/how-much-do-you-save-by-using-uber/.

[14] Kolanko, Daniel, and Zack Gallinger. 2015. “How Much Do You Save by Using Uber?” The 10 and 3, November 11, 2015. http://www.the10and3.com/how-much-do-you-save-by-using-uber/.

[15] ‘Surge pricing’ is a system that hikes fares when demand for vehicles spikes, at the Rideshare’s discretion. Surges can cause significant increases in fare prices, and Rideshares have come under criticism for their implementation, particularly during crisis events. See: Tencer, Daniel. 2015. “Uber Criticized For ‘Surge Pricing’ During Toronto Commuter Chaos.” The Huffington Post Canada, June 8, 2015. https://www.huffingtonpost.ca/2015/06/08/uber-surge-pricing-toronto_n_7535668.html.

[16] Uber has stated they will launch in metro Vancouver at the end of 2019, however. See: Zussman, Richard. 2019. “Uber Will Operate in Metro Vancouver Only, Criticizes B.C.’s Class 4 Restriction.” Global News, August 28, 2019. https://globalnews.ca/news/5822924/uber-announces-metro-vancouver/.

[17] Bellefontaine, Michelle. 2016. “Uber ‘reviewing’ New Alberta Rules before Deciding to Resume Service.” CBC News, June 28, 2016. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/uber-reviewing-new-alberta-rules-before-deciding-to-resume-service-1.3657105.

[18] Page, Julia. “Uber Allowed to Operate in Quebec for Another Year.” CBC News, October 12, 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/montreal/uber-service-pilot-project-extended-1.4860392.

[19] Uber. 2019. “Uber Main Page” Uber. 2019. www.uber.com.

[20] Bliss, Laura. n.d. “‘Uber Was Supposed To Be Our Public Transit.’” CityLab. Accessed September 23, 2019. https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2019/04/innisfil-transit-ride-hailing-bus-public-transportation-uber/588154/.

[21] Hall, Jonathan D., Craig Palsson, and Joseph Price. 2018. “Is Uber a Substitute or Complement for Public Transit?” Journal of Urban Economics 108 (November): 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jue.2018.09.003.

[22] The Canadian Press. 2017. “Uber Says 815,000 Canadians Affected by Data Breach as Investigation Launched.” CBC, December 12, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/uber-data-breach-how-many-1.4444088.

[23] Surender Kumar, Dhaleta. 2017. “From God View to Hell: 6 Ways Uber Has Snooped on Your Privacy over Time.” TechSeen, April 25, 2017. https://techseen.com/2017/04/25/uber-privacy-heaven-hell-greyball-unroll-fingerprint/.

[24] Bhuiyan, Johana, and Charlie Warzel. 2014. “‘God View’: Uber Investigates Its Top New York Executive For Privacy Violations.” BuzzFeed News, November 18, 2014. https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/johanabhuiyan/uber-is-investigating-its-top-new-york-executive-for-privacy#.egMWK0BW6m.

[25] Mehrotra, Dhruv. 2019. “Goodbye Big Five: Want to Really Block the Tech Giants? Here’s How.” Gizmodo, February 7, 2019. https://gizmodo.com/want-to-really-block-the-tech-giants-heres-how-1832261612.

[26] Lyft and Uber have the largest presence in the US; however, the service is offered worldwide. While the US and Canada share the same ‘Privacy Policy’ and similar ‘Terms of Service’ with respect to individual user and third-party access and content, the two countries differ with respect to data practices; namely, where user data is processed and stored. The data controller for the US is Uber Technologies, Inc., located in San Francisco, California, whereas the data controller for the EU and elsewhere (including Canada) is Uber B.V., which is located in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. This means that personally-identifiable information of Canadian users is processed outside of the country. See: Uber. 2019. “Uber Privacy.” Uber Privacy. 2019. https://privacy.uber.com/policy/; Uber. 2017. “Legal. Uber B.V. Terms and Conditions. (Canada).” December 4, 2017. https://www.uber.com/legal/terms/ca/.

[27] Parsons, Christopher. “Privacy Tech-Know Blog: Who’s Watching Where You’re Driving?” Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, June 13, 2017. https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/blog/20170613/.

[28] Parsons, Christopher. “Privacy Tech-Know Blog: Who’s Watching Where You’re Driving?” Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, June 13, 2017. https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/blog/20170613/.

[29] Newell, Bryce Clayton. 2013. “Local Law Enforcement Jumps on the Big Data Bandwagon: Automated License Plate Recognition Systems, Information Privacy, and Access to Government Information.” Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2341182; Parsons, Christopher. “Privacy Tech-Know Blog: Who’s Watching Where You’re Driving?” Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada, June 13, 2017. https://www.priv.gc.ca/en/blog/20170613/.

[30] Government of Canada. “Global Navigation Satellite Systems.” Fact Sheets. Government of Canada, May 22, 2014. https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/smt-gst.nsf/eng/sf10805.html.

[31] Young, Andrew, Christina Rogawski, and Stefaan Verhulst. “United States Opening GPS Data for Civilian Use.” GovLab, 2019. http://odimpact.org.

[32] In comparison to dashboard-mounted GPS trackers, which have been commercially available for some time in Canada.

[33] Holley, Peter. “Can GPS Tracking Stop Customers from Stealing Rental Cars? In California, a New Debate over Privacy Begins.” Washington Post, April 10, 2018. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2018/04/09/can-gps-tracking-stop-customers-from-stealing-rental-cars-in-california-a-new-debate-over-privacy-begins/.

[34] CAA Insurance Company. 2019. “CAA MyPaceTM. Putting Low-Mileage Motorists in the Driver’s Seat.” CAA MyPaceTM. 2019. https://www.caamypace.com.

[35] Korosec, Kirsten. 2018. “A New Unicorn Is Born: Root Insurance Raises $100 Million for a $1 Billion Valuation.” TechCrunch, August 22, 2018. https://techcrunch.com/2018/08/22/a-new-unicorn-is-born-root-insurance-raises-100-million-for-a-1-billion-valuation/.

[36] CNBC. “Progressive Corp: Real Time Quote.” CNBC, 2019. https://www.cnbc.com/quotes/?symbol=PGR.

[37] Lewis, Michael. “‘Pay as You Go’ Auto Insurance Rolls out in Ontario.” The Star, May 23, 2018. https://www.thestar.com/business/2018/05/23/pay-as-you-go-auto-insurance-rolls-out-in-ontario.html.

[38] Juang, Mike. “New Kind of Auto Insurance Can Be Cheaper, but Tracks Your Every Move.” CNBC, October 6, 2018. https://www.cnbc.com/2018/10/05/new-kind-of-auto-insurance-can-be-cheaper-but-tracks-your-every-move.html.

[39] My Insurance Broker. “How Usage Based Car Insurance Could Save You Money.” My Insurance Broker, August 30, 2018. https://www.myinsurancebroker.com/insurance/car-insurance/resources/how-usage-based-car-insurance-could-save-you-money/.

[40] seconyers. 2016. “IOS 10 Facebook ‘Arrived at Home.’” Apple Community. https://discussions.apple.com/thread/7668029.

[41] The Associated Press. “Google Tracks Your Movements, Like It or Not.” CBC, August 13, 2018. https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/google-movements-tracking-1.4782895.

[42] Oragui, David. 2018. “A Beginner’s Guide to Beacon Marketing in 2018.” The Manifest, August 3, 2018. https://themanifest.com/app-development/beginners-guide-beacon-marketing-2018.

[43] Chung, Emily. 2017. “If You’re Blind, This Technology Will Help You Find the Checkout Line.” CBC News, September 19, 2017. https://www.cbc.ca/news/technology/blind-ibeacon-iphone-app-stores-1.4294970.

[44] As was used for performance evaluation within the Bloor Street pilot project in Toronto within 2016-2017. See Levine, Romi. 2017. “U of T Researchers Play Important Role in City of Toronto’s Bloor Street Bike Lane Evaluation.” University of Toronto News, October 12, 2017. https://www.utoronto.ca/news/u-t-researchers-play-important-role-city-toronto-s-bloor-street-bike-lane-evaluation.

[45] Toronto Parking Authority, and Open Data Toronto. “Bike Share Toronto Ridership Data (2016-onward).” City of Toronto, November 14, 2017. https://open.toronto.ca/dataset/bike-share-toronto-ridership-data/.

[46] Biko. 2018. “Biko | Every Ride Counts.” Bikoapp. Accessed October 6, 2019. http://www.bikoapp.com.

[47] Woyke, Elizabeth. 2018. “The Secret Data Collected by Dockless Bikes Is Helping Cities Map Your Movement.” MIT Technology Review, September 29, 2018. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612123/the-secret-data-collected-by-dockless-bikes-is-helping-cities-map-your-movement/.

[48] Woyke, Elizabeth. 2018. “The Secret Data Collected by Dockless Bikes Is Helping Cities Map Your Movement.” MIT Technology Review, September 29, 2018. https://www.technologyreview.com/s/612123/the-secret-data-collected-by-dockless-bikes-is-helping-cities-map-your-movement/.

[49] Lamont, Jonathan. 2019. “Bird Canada Launches E-Scooters in Calgary.” The Star, July 29, 2019. https://www.thestar.com/business/2019/07/29/bird-canada-launches-e-scooters-in-calgary.html.

[50] Carter, Adam. 2019. “E-Scooter Pilot Project to Launch in Toronto, but Major Hurdles Remain.” CBC News, August 23, 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/escooter-toronto-pilot-project-1.5256455.

[51] Strava. 2019. “Strava | Run and Cycling Tracking on the Social Network for Athletes.” 2019. https://www.strava.com/.

[52] Strava. n.d. “Strava Global Heatmap.” Strava. Accessed October 6, 2019. https://www.strava.com/heatmap.

[53] Strava Metro. 2019. “Strava Metro | Creating Better Cities by Using Big Data.” Strava Metro. 2019. https://metro.strava.com/.

[54] Strava: Schneider, Benjamin. 2017. “The Fitness App That Helps Cities Understand Cyclists.” CityLab, November 7, 2017. https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/11/strava-metro-global-heatmap-urban-planning/545174/.

[55] Strava: Schneider, Benjamin. 2017. “The Fitness App That Helps Cities Understand Cyclists.” CityLab, November 7, 2017. https://www.citylab.com/transportation/2017/11/strava-metro-global-heatmap-urban-planning/545174/.

For media enquiries, please contact Coralie D’Souza, Director of Communications, Events + Community Relations at the Brookfield Institute for Innovation + Entrepreneurship.

​Sarah Villeneuve
Policy Analyst
Stephanie Fielding
Policy & Research Analyst
November 20, 2019
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