Data Never Sleeps: Data collection practices in domestic spaces

Data Never Sleeps: Data collection practices in domestic spaces

From asking Alexa about the weather to catching some Z's, this article provides a snapshot of how personal data is being actively and passively collected during your down time.
​Sarah Villeneuve
Policy Analyst
Stephanie Fielding
Policy & Research Analyst
November 12, 2019
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From sleeping, to streaming, to engaging with Internet of Things (IoT) devices, we generate significant amounts of data as we go about our daily routines. In addition to data practices associated with so-called ‘smart devices’, our homes may increasingly become the site of data generation and collection as new and newly-networked products are developed and consumer adoption increases. For example, music and media streaming services such as Netflix and Spotify, often consumed in the home, have founded their business models on using data generated from consumer usage and user preferences to inform personalized content. Many home internet and phone providers also collect personally-identifiable information about their customers in order to provide better service; however, this data may also be shared with third parties without consumer knowledge.[1] Even while we are asleep, data is collected both passively by our smartphones, and actively through sleep monitoring apps such as Sleep Cycle, Pillow, and Sleep, devices such as alarm clocks, sensor-embedded sleep pads and pillows, and wearables including sleep rings and watches.

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Sleeping

One in three Canadians surveyed by Statistics Canada in 2017 reported that they were not sleeping enough.[2] To soothe these woes, and as part of a larger trend of technology-enabled self-tracking and optimization,[3] many individuals have turned to technology to help them track and measure the quality of their sleep. There are a number of products on the Canadian market which provide consumers with opportunities to quantify sleep data through digital tracking devices, with the promise of informing overall health.[4] This data tends to be collected in three ways: through opt-in trackers in apps, wearables, and bedside sleep systems, wherein users input data about their time asleep, time in bed, body movement, heart rate, and breathing sounds; through passive trackers, often built-in to devices, which draw data from other sources; or by manually inputting data, such mood or caffeine intake, into an app.[5] Apple iPhone’s Health Data Sleep Analysis, for example, estimates ‘time in bed’ vs. ‘time asleep’ by analyzing physical activity such as movement, using data drawn from pre-installed apps such as Health and Clock. In order to track sleep, users must use the ‘bedtime’ setting in the alarm clock or link to an external sleep app; the data collected will then automatically appear in the Health app.

Sleep monitoring apps such as Sleep TrackerSleep Cycle, and Pillow, “sleep systems” such as Aura, and wearables including smartwatches and rings (e.g., Oura Ring) track and alert sleepers about a range of events based on data collected throughout the night, such as the number of times they have woken per night, whether they achieved deep REM sleep, and how their breathing and heart rates behaved. Some, such as SleepCycle,[6] use location data to provide users with insights about how the weather could affect their sleep. Depending on their privacy agreements, these apps may share user data with third parties. SleepCycle, for example, “shares anonymized and aggregate data with its affiliates and business partners for commercial, statistical, and market research.”[7] The company website provides statistics based on user data drawn from their users around the globe, as well as a map showing a ‘live’ representation of sleeping and rising times.[8] 

"...there are 3.9 million smart-speaker users in Canada, and it is predicted that next year the amount of smart speakers will rise to 5.8 million and then jump to 6.7 million in 2020."

Smart home devices

‘Smart’ home devices, such as speakers and entertainment systems, security and family monitoring, thermostats, smoke detectors, doorbells and locks, appliances such as stoves,[9] fridges,[10] and toasters,[11] and even bluetooth-enabled utensils[12] are becoming more prevalent on the Canadian market. The International Data Corporation (IDC) predicted that “in Canada, the number of installed autonomous intelligent and embedded systems would rise from 23 million in 2013 to 114 million in 2018.”[13] These devices, connected to the internet as a network of wireless sensors (i.e., IoTs),[14] give users the ability to manage and direct commands remotely from their smartphones; thermostats can be turned on while coming home from work, front doors monitored and secured via live feeds, and queries answered by one’s virtual assistant, among other benefits. They also collect and store an immense amount of data, and in many cases share information with external parties.

Smart speakers

Smart speakers, such as the Amazon Echo and Google Home, are internet-enabled wireless speakers with integrated virtual assistant systems (e.g., Alexa, Siri, Bixby, et al.), that are operated through voice commands. These devices can be directed to stream music, make recommendations, report the news and weather, and even manage networked IoT devices, such as smart thermostats or doorbells. They are incredibly popular; a recent study from eMarketer[15] reports that there are 3.9 million smart-speaker users in Canada, and it is predicted that next year the amount of smart speakers will rise to 5.8 million and then jump to 6.7 million in 2020.[16] 

To detect and respond to voice commands, the speakers’ microphones have to continuously listen for their ‘wake word’ (e.g., “Alexa” or “Hi Google”), followed by the detection of ‘hot word’ operational commands. Commands are stored and analyzed in order to predict user behaviour and future requests, and to train speech and natural language understanding systems.[17]  As a study from Lau, Zimmerman, and Schaub (2018)[18] shows, those who use smart home devices rarely enable privacy controls, such as the mute button, to turn off recording temporarily, or manual review of stored audio logs, including the ability to delete records. This is due to several factors, the researchers state, including sentiments of trust towards companies providing the technology, not believing the technology to be advanced enough to parse through the audio inputs, and that the privacy controls themselves were inconvenient and not aligned with user needs.[19]

The implications of this unfiltered listening and data collection are currently unknown, despite claims of user privacy made by the companies responsible for their production and data management.[20] By entering into a home containing a smart speaker, you will likely have your data collected and listened to by employees of the device’s manufacturer.[21] Beyond privacy concerns surrounding smart speakers operating as designed and recording when users do not want them to, several recent breaches with respect to personal privacy have been reported, including smart speakers sending private conversations to the user’s contacts in error.[22]  Such breaches have sparked public debate, and caused consumers to ask what is being recorded, how the collected information will be used, and how it will be stored, protected, and purged.[23]

"Google recently published a declaration about privacy in the home, including a statement about how consumer voice commands will be used for targeted advertising."

Home security and smart doorbells

Smart doorbell cameras, such as Amazon Ring and Google Nest, are internet-connected devices that allow users to screen and record visitors to their place of residence, receive notifications of activity on their smartphone, and, in some cases, communicate via a microphone and open the door remotely. Whereas Ring doorbells record and store footage in the cloud only when motion is detected, Nest’s Hello records audio and video 24/7, and will automatically tag recordings using facial recognition software.[24] 

Many smart doorbells are compatible with smart speaker virtual assistants, and some allow users to share footage, report crimes, and discuss suspicious behaviour on public social networks, such as through Ring’s Neighbors function.[25] Ring currently has video-sharing partnerships with hundreds of police forces in the US, giving law enforcement the ability to request access to millions of homeowners’ video footage to pursue investigations.[26]Homeowners may refuse any request that is not made without a “legally valid and binding order” in the US;[27] however, the potential for widespread surveillance[28] and discrimination against minorities have raised concerns.[29] 

Google recently published a declaration about privacy in the home, including a statement about how consumer voice commands will be used for targeted advertising. These statements came shortly after a security flaw was discovered in one of their indoor security cameras, allowing a former owner to spy on a new one.[30] Digital smart home devices, including speakers, locks, lights, and doorbells, have been involved in several reported domestic abuse cases wherein former partners retain control of the technology, allowing them to activate commands from their smartphones, constituting a new form of technologically aided harassment and interpersonal surveillance.[31]

"One’s choice of provider for [internet and telecommunications] services can have an impact on the ways in which an individual’s, or aggregate household’s, personal data is collected and shared."

Telecom and Internet Providers

In Canada, the internet and telecommunication are basic services which are available for purchase in most homes; Statistics Canada has reported that in 2017, 75% of Canadian households had internet access,[32] and the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) reports that in 2016 nearly all (99.3%) subscribed to either mobile or landline telecommunication services.[33] One’s choice of provider for these services can have an impact on the ways in which an individual’s, or aggregate household’s, personal data is collected and shared. Recent reports by the Canadian media[34] have shown that several telecommunications service providers (TSPs), such as Bell, Telus, and Rogers, collect and share customer data (including short messaging service (SMS) and call records, Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, cell tower information, et al.) with third parties, such as data-driven market analytic service EnStream.[35] However, as Citizen Lab’s report Approaching Access: A look at consumer personal data requests in Canada[36] addresses, there is a lack of communication between the providers and their consumers; “TSPs generally do not clearly tell participants if their data had been shared with third parties such as government agencies.”[37]

User data generated through internet use, including personally-identifiable information (e.g., name, IP address, billing details, et al.), browsing and contact history (including who was contacted, when, and where), and communication content (e.g., messaging details), is collected by internet service providers (ISPs). However, this information does not always stay within Canada. IX Map,[38] a collaborative project between the University of Toronto, OCAD University, and the Information Policy Research Program (IPRP), shows how Canadian data is routed across the country and abroad (including the location of data centres, carrier hotels, and international entry-points). The project also provides privacy transparency ratings of Canadian internet service providers (ISPs), and identifies where and how the United States’ National Security Agency (NSA) may intercept personal data on Canadians.[39] Of the ten major ISPs considered in 2017 (including Bell, TekSavvy, Rogers, Videotron, et al.), all made a public commitment to The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA), which is the federal privacy law for private-sector organizations compliance; however, only half informed their users of all third party data requests, many retained personal information for normal retention periods, and only one company (Cogeco) used domestic Canadian routing when possible.[40]

"...many default privacy settings within mobile applications enable data, ranging from personally-identifying information to browsing history, to be transmitted from mobile device apps to associated third-parties even when no applications are open."

Mobile Devices

According to a study published by the Pew Research Centre, mobile devices, including smartphones and tablets, were used by seventy-one percent of Canadians in 2017.[41] These devices allow users to access the internet and apps, and to store data locally. Mobile devices have become the most prevalent telecom technology in Canada, with many opting for mobile over traditional landline phones; the CRTC reported in 2016 that “almost a third of Canadians subscribe to mobile service only.”[42] 

Recent investigations by journalists at the Washington Post and Gizmodo have shown that many default privacy settings within mobile applications enable data, ranging from personally-identifying information to browsing history, to be transmitted from mobile device apps to associated third-parties even when no applications are open.[43] This counters the claim that one’s data is securely stored on personal devices.[44] Kashmir Hill and Dhruv Mehrotra’s Big 5 report[45] report, published in February 2019, illustrated this passive network activity, which occurs when plugging in the author’s iPhone; a similar privacy experiment,[46] led by Geoffrey A. Fowler, revealed 5,400 hidden app trackers drawing data from his iPhone during one week, and how in a single evening a dozen marketing companies, research firms, and other personal data guzzlers got reports from his iPhone – including one which collected a digital fingerprint at 3:58am.[47]

"In 2018, a Nest baby monitoring system was hacked by activists warning parents of the potential for security breaches."

Family Monitoring Systems

While video and audio monitoring have been the norm for years, parental control software and smart baby monitoring systems, including wearables, IoT-connected videos, and remote access to video feeds, are becoming more prevalent in Canadian homes. Using sensors connected directly to a child’s body (through clips, wristbands, et al.), smart baby monitors collect data on your child’s sleep patterns, body temperature, heart rate, oxygen, and breathing. Most monitors pair with an app on parents’ smartphones, and may also collect data about the room’s humidity and temperature levels. Video monitors may be used in conjunction, and some monitors may be integrated into your smart home system (e.g., Alexa or Google Home). Parents may need to opt-in to ‘Privacy Mode’ to ensure data about their child won’t be stored in the cloud, where it is more susceptible to potential data breaches or malicious activity. In 2018, a Nest baby monitoring system was hacked by activists warning parents of the potential for security breaches.[48] 

Once a child is old enough to use a device independently, parents may opt to use a parental-control app, such as Qustodio,[49] which offers the opportunity to tether to the device their child interacts with in order to monitor use, as well as content sent and received. A basic account with Qustodio, including the monitoring of a single device, is available for free. Qustodio collects, stores, and analyzes personal data from registered devices, including identification and contact data, Internet browsing and content viewing data, and behavioural data. The parent or supervisor may censor content at their discretion, and track their child’s location. Some tech companies have stricter rules for monitoring children; Google, for instance, abides by “US federal regulation in the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act,”[50] which maintains that [the company] does not collect data from children under 13 without a parent’s approval. However, their parental control system gives authority back to the child once they are 13 years of age, allowing for the data collection of minors.

Entertainment + Music Streaming

Music and viewing preferences are mapped and tracked by many of the major music and content streaming services to create a more personalized experience through recommendations based on preferences, gender, race, and viewing patterns. Family and friends may share streaming accounts by creating unique profiles under the same parent account and billing information. In this case, users sharing an account will often see different content from each other as the algorithm adapts to their unique preferences, i.e., x-user’s browsing selection will likely contain content that differs from their roommate if both are using the same account under personalized profiles.

Spotify, a popular music streaming service, is considered to have the largest ‘mood-based dataset’.[51] This dataset, made up of user-inputted data related to their emotional states, feelings, and moods, is supplemented with data measuring user engagement with music and playlists available on the platform. Spotify uses this dataset to inform targeted advertisements within its platform,[52]and, alongside Netflix, another mainstream service, to draw from user profiles for their public ad campaigns. In recent years, data collection by Netflix has been used to produce original content in response to user preferences, including several popular movie and television productions. In 2018 Spotify ran a successful ad campaign drawing directly from data drawn from user profiles, including humorous playlist tiles and use-patterns, to attract new subscribers.[53] Both Spotify and Netflix campaigns have received public pushback for being too invasive from a user-privacy perspective.[54] Distribution models based on recommendations of similar content can also present a challenge for productions that don’t fit the norm. Netflix’s Tuca & Bertie, an adult-animated series with critical acclaim and female, BIPOC[55] animators and cast, was cancelled after a short run due to lack of engagement on the platform, causing many viewers to call for greater transparency around how a show’s relative success may be determined by an algorithm.[56]

This is part of a series of articles exploring personal data collection practices in Canada. Check out our project page or the next article in the series, ‘Blood, Sweat, and Megabytes,’ exploring exercise and health data collection.

Technology and policy related to this topic are constantly evolving. If you think we have missed something or see an error please contact Sarah Villeneuve (sarah.villeneuve@ryerson.ca). If you want to get involved in subsequent phases of this project, apply here.


[1]  IXmaps. 2017. “Keeping Internet Users in the Know or in the Dark: Data Privacy Transparency of Canadian Internet Service Providers.” IXmaps. https://www.ixmaps.ca/transparency.php.

[2] Basen, Ira. 2019. “The Tech-Fuelled Hunt for the Perfect Night’s Sleep.” CBC News, March 29, 2019. https://www.cbc.ca/radio/thesundayedition/the-sunday-edition-for-march-31-2019-1.5076642/the-tech-fuelled-hunt-for-the-perfect-night-s-sleep-1.5076664.

[3] Tolentino, Jia. “Athleisure, Barre and Kale: The Tyranny of the Ideal Woman | News | The Guardian.” The Guardian, August 2, 2019. https://www.theguardian.com/news/2019/aug/02/athleisure-barre-kale-tyranny-ideal-woman-labour.

[4] Miller, Claire Cain. 2014. “Collecting Data on a Good Night’s Sleep.” Well (blog). March 10, 2014. https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2014/03/10/collecting-data-on-a-good-nights-sleep/.

[5] “Mind & Body Apps – Sleep Log Pro and Sleep Log Free.” Accessed October 18, 2019. https://sites.google.com/view/mindandbodyapps/sleep-log-pro.

[6] SleepCycle. n.d. “Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock.” Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock. n.d. https://www.sleepcycle.com/.

[7] SleepCycle. 2018. “Privacy Policy.” Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock. 2018. https://www.sleepcycle.com/privacy-policy/.

[8] SleepCycle. n.d. “Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock.” Sleep Cycle Alarm Clock. n.d. https://www.sleepcycle.com/.

[9] Flynt, Joseph. 2019. “Best Smart Stoves of 2019.” 3D Insider, January 14, 2019. https://3dinsider.com/smart-stoves/.

[10] Hyde, Patrick. 2019. “The 7 Best Smart Fridges of 2019.” Lifewire. June 24, 2019. https://www.lifewire.com/best-smart-fridges-4159454.

[11] Hern, Alex, and Arwa Mahdawi. 2018. “Beware the Smart Toaster: 18 Tips for Surviving the Surveillance Age | Technology | The Guardian.” The Guardian, March 28, 2018. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2018/mar/28/beware-the-smart-toaster-18-tips-for-surviving-the-surveillance-age.

[12] Peters, Justin. 2017. “Is There Any Good Reason to Buy a $60 Smart Fork?” Slate Magazine, October 24, 2017. https://slate.com/technology/2017/10/why-should-you-buy-a-bluetooth-enabled-smart-fork.html.

[13] IDC, and Telus. 2014. “TELUS/IDC Internet of Things Study 2014: The Connected Canadian Business.” http://resources-business.telus.com/cms/files/files/000/000/698/original/InfoDoc_Telus.pdf.

[14] IoT, or Internet of Things is a concept which refers to the network of devices that are connected to the internet, and to each other. Includes many household devices (i.e., toasters, lamps, doorbells, etc.), wearables, smartphones, et al.

[15] McNair, Corey. 2019. “Global Smart Speaker Users 2019.” eMarketer. https://www.emarketer.com/content/global-smart-speaker-users-2019.

[16] McNair, Corey. 2019. “Global Smart Speaker Users 2019.” eMarketer. https://www.emarketer.com/content/global-smart-speaker-users-2019.

[17] Valinsky, Jordan. 2019. “Amazon Reportedly Employs Thousands of People to Listen to Your Alexa Conversations.” CNN. April 11, 2019. https://www.cnn.com/2019/04/11/tech/amazon-alexa-listening/index.html.

[18] Lau, Josephine, Benjamin Zimmerman, and Florian Schaub. 2018. “Alexa, Are You Listening?: Privacy Perceptions, Concerns and Privacy-Seeking Behaviors with Smart Speakers.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2 (November): 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1145/3274371.

[19] Lau, Josephine, Benjamin Zimmerman, and Florian Schaub. 2018. “Alexa, Are You Listening?: Privacy Perceptions, Concerns and Privacy-Seeking Behaviors with Smart Speakers.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2 (November): 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1145/3274371.

[20] Lau, Josephine, Benjamin Zimmerman, and Florian Schaub. 2018. “Alexa, Are You Listening?: Privacy Perceptions, Concerns and Privacy-Seeking Behaviors with Smart Speakers.” Proceedings of the ACM on Human-Computer Interaction 2 (November): 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1145/3274371.

[21] Paul, Kari. 2019. “Google Workers Can Listen to What People Say to Its AI Home Devices.” The Guardian, July 11, 2019, sec. Technology. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2019/jul/11/google-home-assistant-listen-recordings-users-privacy; Valinsky, Jordan. 2019. “Amazon Reportedly Employs Thousands of People to Listen to Your Alexa Conversations.” CNN. April 11, 2019. https://www.cnn.com/2019/04/11/tech/amazon-alexa-listening/index.html.

[22] Brown, B. (2018, May 25). Amazon Explains Why Alexa Sent Private Family Recordings to A Contact. Retrieved January 15, 2019, from https://www.digitaltrends.com/home/alexa-sent-private-recordings-to-contact-woman-says/.

[23] BBC. 2017. Amazon Hands over Echo ’murder’ Data. BBC News (March 2017). http://www.bbc.com/news/ technology-3919105.

[24] Cericola, Rachel, Jon Chase, and Stacey Higginbotham. 2019. “The Best Smart Doorbell Camera for 2019.” Wirecutter: A New York Times Company. July 26, 2019. https://thewirecutter.com/reviews/best-smart-doorbell-camera/.

[25] Winder, Davey. n.d. “Google Confirms Creepy New Privacy Problem.” Forbes. Accessed October 6, 2019. https://www.forbes.com/sites/daveywinder/2019/06/23/google-confirms-creepy-new-privacy-problem/.

[26] Harwell, Drew. 2019. “Doorbell-Camera Firm Ring Has Partnered with 400 Police Forces, Extending Surveillance Concerns.” Washington Post, August 28, 2019, sec. Technology. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/08/28/doorbell-camera-firm-ring-has-partnered-with-police-forces-extending-surveillance-reach/.

[27] Ring has stated that they will comply with law enforcement in the case of such requests, without notifying users. See: Harwell, Drew. 2019. “Doorbell-Camera Firm Ring Has Partnered with 400 Police Forces, Extending Surveillance Concerns.” Washington Post, August 28, 2019, sec. Technology. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/08/28/doorbell-camera-firm-ring-has-partnered-with-police-forces-extending-surveillance-reach/.

[28] Harwell, Drew. 2019. “Doorbell-Camera Firm Ring Has Partnered with 400 Police Forces, Extending Surveillance Concerns.” Washington Post, August 28, 2019, sec. Technology. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/08/28/doorbell-camera-firm-ring-has-partnered-with-police-forces-extending-surveillance-reach/.

[29] The Associated Press. 2019. “Doorbell Cams Raise Privacy Fears and Concerns about Bias.” CBS News, July 19, 2019. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/doorbell-cams-raise-privacy-fears-and-concerns-about-bias/.

[30] Google. 2019. “Google Nest Commitment to Privacy in the Home.” Google. 2019. https://store.google.com/us/category/google_nest_privacy.

[31] Bowles, Nellie. 2018. “Thermostats, Locks and Lights: Digital Tools of Domestic Abuse – The New York Times.” The New York Times, June 23, 2018. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/23/technology/smart-home-devices-domestic-abuse.html; Greenberg, Andy. 2019. “Hacker Eva Galperin Has a Plan to Eradicate Stalkerware” Wired, March 4, 2019. https://www.wired.com/story/eva-galperin-stalkerware-kaspersky-antivirus/.

[32] Government of Canada Statistics Canada. 2017. “Households with Access to the Internet at Home by Geography.” Statistics Canada. December 27, 2017. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/tv.action?pid=2210001101.

[33] Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. 2018. “Communications Monitoring Report 2018.” Government of Canada. August 16, 2018. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policymonitoring/2018/cmr1.htm.

[34] Parsons, Christopher A. 2015. “The Governance of Telecommunications Surveillance: How Opaque and Unaccountable Practices and Policies Threaten Canadians.” SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 2901521. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2901521.

[35] EnStream. 2018. “EnStream.” 2018. https://www.enstream.com/.

[36] Hilts, Andrew, Christopher A. Parsons, and Masashi Crete-Nishihata. 2018. “Approaching Access: A Look at Consumer Personal Data Requests in Canada.” The Citizen Lab and Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy. https://citizenlab.ca/2018/02/approaching-access-look-consumer-personal-data-requests-canada/.

[37]  Hilts, Andrew, Christopher A. Parsons, and Masashi Crete-Nishihata. 2018. “Approaching Access: A Look at Consumer Personal Data Requests in Canada.” The Citizen Lab and Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy. https://citizenlab.ca/2018/02/approaching-access-look-consumer-personal-data-requests-canada/.

[38] IXmaps. n.d. “About.” IXmaps. n.d. https://www.ixmaps.ca/.

[39] IXmapsalso annually reports privacy transparency ratings of internet service providers that carry Canadians’ data.

[40] IXmaps. 2017. “Keeping Internet Users in the Know or in the Dark: Data Privacy Transparency of Canadian Internet Service Providers.” IXmaps. https://www.ixmaps.ca/transparency.php.

[41] Poushter, Jacob, Caldwell Bishop, and Hanyu Chwe. 2018. “Social Media Use Continues to Rise in Developing Countries.” https://www.pewresearch.org/global/2018/06/19/social-media-use-continues-to-rise-in-developing-countries-but-plateaus-across-developed-ones/.

[42] Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). 2018. “Communications Monitoring Report 2018.” Government of Canada. August 16, 2018. https://crtc.gc.ca/eng/publications/reports/policymonitoring/2018/cmr1.htm.

[43] ‘Facebook collected call and text logs from phones running Google’s Android system in 2015.’ (Facebook to be fined close to $5B after privacy breaches: report).

[44] Gartenberg, Chaim. 2019. “‘Privacy Matters’ in Apple’s Latest IPhone Ad.” The Verge, March 14, 2019. https://www.theverge.com/2019/3/14/18266276/apple-iphone-ad-privacy-facetime-bug.

[45] Mehrotra, Dhruv. 2019. “Want to Really Block the Tech Giants? Here’s How.” Gizmodo, July 2, 2019. https://gizmodo.com/want-to-really-block-the-tech-giants-heres-how-1832261612.

[46] Fowler, Geoffrey A. 2019. “Perspective | It’s the Middle of the Night. Do You Know Who Your IPhone Is Talking To?” Washington Post, May 28, 2019, sec. Consumer Tech  Perspective    Perspective Discussion of news topics with a point of view, including narratives by individuals regarding their own experiences. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/05/28/its-middle-night-do-you-know-who-your-iphone-is-talking/.

[47] Fowler, Geoffrey A. 2019. “Perspective | It’s the Middle of the Night. Do You Know Who Your IPhone Is Talking To?” Washington Post, May 28, 2019. https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2019/05/28/its-middle-night-do-you-know-who-your-iphone-is-talking/.

[48] Joseph, Rebecca. 2018. “Wi-Fi Baby Monitor Hacked: Parents Wake up to Voice Threatening to Kidnap Their Child – National | Globalnews.Ca.” Global News, December 21, 2018. https://globalnews.ca/news/4785542/wifi-baby-monitor-hacked-kidnap/.

[49] Qustodio. 2019. “Best Parental Control Software.” Qustodio. 2019. https://www.qustodio.com/en/.

[50] Chen, Brian X. 2017. “Google’s New Parental Control App Has a Flaw: Puberty – The New York Times.” The New York Times, July 26, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/07/26/technology/personaltech/android-parental-controls-family-link.html.

[51] Pelly, Liz. 2019. “Big Mood Machine.” The Baffler, June 10, 2019. https://thebaffler.com/downstream/big-mood-machine-pelly.

[52] In 2017, Spotify published a report, Understanding People Through Music: Millennial Editionwhich analyzed U.S., UK, and Australian audience “demographics, usage, playlist behaviour, feature usage, and music tastes to inform user segmentation” within the platform.

[53] Katumba, Kag. “How Spotify Showed the Power of Data Analytics in Their Marketing Campaign.” Smart Insights, October 26, 2019. https://www.smartinsights.com/traffic-building-strategy/campaign-of-the-week-how-spotify-showed-the-power-of-data-analytics-in-their-marketing-campaign/.

[54] Murphy, Margi. 2017. “‘Creepy’ Netflix Tweet on Viewers’ TV Habits Provokes Privacy Concerns.” The Telegraph, December 12, 2017. https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2017/12/12/creepy-netflix-tweet-viewers-tv-habits-provokes-privacy-concerns/.

[55] Black, Indigenous, and People of Colour

[56] Feldberg, Isaac. 2019. “Netflix’s Cancellation of ‘Tuca & Bertie’ Renews Criticism of Its Perplexing Algorithm.” Fortune. July 25, 2019. https://fortune.com/2019/07/25/netflix-cancels-tuca-and-bertie-algorithm/.

For media enquiries, please contact Coralie D’Souza, Director of Communications, Events + Community Relations at the Brookfield Institute for Innovation + Entrepreneurship.

​Sarah Villeneuve
Policy Analyst
Stephanie Fielding
Policy & Research Analyst
November 12, 2019
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